Students' Contributions



Class Contribution:


Classes of Food
- Carbohydrates
- Proteins
- Fats
- Vitamins
- Minerals
- Fibre
- Water

Carbohydrates
1. Carbohydrates are organic compound made up of carbon,hydrogen and oxygen.
2. Carbohydrates gives us the most energy.
3. The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 2:1.
4. Carbohydrates includes sugar, starch, simple sugar and cellulose.
5. Examples of food rich in carbohydrates are rice, bread, potatoes, flour and sugar.

Example of Carbohydrates
Carb_4.jpg

Building blocks of Carbohydrates
Carb_3.jpg

Building blocks of Starch
Starch.jpg

Building blocks of Cellulose
Cellulose.jpg

Building blocks of Glycogen
Glycogen.jpg

monosaccharides
disaccharides
polysacchrides
- glucose
- maltose (glucose +glucose)
- starch
- fructose
- sucrose ( glucose + fructose)
- cellulose
- galactose
- lactose ( glucose + galactose)
- glycogen

Proteins
1. Proteins are organic compound containing carbon,hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
2. Sulphur and phosphorus are sometimes present.
3. A molecule of protein is made up of large number of subunits called amino acids.
4. Proteins are needed for growth and the repair of body tissues.
5. They are also needed for formation of enzymes, hormones, haemoglobin and antibodies.
6. Examples of proteins are milk, fish, eggs, chicken and bean curd.

AMINO_ACID.jpg
Proteins are made by connecting amino acids together. Here the acid end of glycine will connect to the amino part of alanine. A water is released in the process.

Amino_ACIDS.jpg

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images-1.jpg

Fats
1. Fats are compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
2. Fats is stored under the skin or around the body.
3. Fats helps us keep warm and protects organs from damage.
4. Fats helps us tranports vitamins A, D, E and K.
5. Fats consists of *8smaller unit of fatty acids combined with glycerol.

Vitamins
1. Vitamins are
organic compounds needed in small amounts by our body for health and growth.
2. Vitamins are divided into two groups which are
water-soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins.
3.
Water-soluble vitamins are vitamins B and C, whereas fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E and K.


Vitamin
Source
Function
Deficiency Disease
A
Milk, butter, egg yolk, carrot, tomato, green vegetables
- night vision,
- healthy skin
- night blindness
- skin defections
B
Yeast, eggs, liver
- Releases energy from carbohydrates
- Healthy nervous system
- Healthy skin
- Formation of red blood cells
- beriberi
- anaemis
C
Fresh fruits and vegetables
- healing of wounds
- resistance to disease
- scurvy (bleeding gums)
D
Butter, fish oils, eggs
- strong bones and teeth
- rickets (soft bones and dental decay)
E
Cereals, green vegetables
- May be needed for reproduction
- Helps to fight against diseases
- sterility
K
Milk, butter, egg yolk, carrot, tomato, green vegetables
- clotting of blood
- prolonged bleeding

Minerals
1. Minerals are
organic substances needed in our body in small amounts for healthy growth and development.


Mineral
Source
Function
Deficiency Disease
Calcium
Cheese, milk. Eggs. green vegetables
- strong bones and teeth
- blood clotting
- muscle and nerve activities
- rickets
- osteoporosis
- prolonged bleeding
- muscular cramps
Sodium
Tables salt, cheese, meat
- maintains body fluids
- proper functioning of nerves
- muscular cramps
Iron
Meat, eggs, green vegetables
- needed to form hemoglobin in red blood cells
- anemia
Iodine
Seafood, iodised salt
- needed to make hormones of the thyroid glands
- goitre (swelling of the thyroid gland in the neck)
Phosphorus
Eggs, meat, milk, cheese, vegetables
- strong bones and teeth
- muscle contraction
- stores energy
- rickets
- weakness
Potassium
Meat. Nuts, bananas
- maintains body fluids
- proper functioning of nerves
- regulation of heartbeat
- weak muscle
- paralysis

Fibre
1. Fibre is also known as roughage.
2. Fibre is made up of
cellulose from plant cell walls.
3. Fibre
CANNOT be digested in our body.
4. Fibre holds
a lot of water so that our faeces remains soft and can pass from our body easily.
5. Fibre can
prevents constipation.

Water
1. Water makes up
70% of our body.
2. Water is the
main components of our blood and body fluids.
3. Water can
dissolve a lot of other chemicals in our body and allows chemical to react.
4. Waste substances such as
urea and salts are passed from our body in water*8.
5. Water helps us to regulate our body temperature.
6. Water lost through urine and sweat MUST be replaced.


Melanie Foong